Camera Flash Circuit

This circuit is composed of the light measurement circuit and the flash circuit, as the figure shows. It can be used in the POPTICS (one kind of popular integration camera), the Franka X-500 and the WIZEN-860S cameras. It is composed of the following circuits: (1)the light measurement circuit is composed of the VT1, VT2 and the light metering component RG (use the cadmium sulphide CdS photoconductive resistance). (2)the electrical inductance

Switch Your Socket: Replace Light Bulbs with Music Players (idea)

Ingenious design often anticipates needs we do not even know we have – the telephone was scoffed at initially, and the electric bulb (now a cultural symbol of bright new ideas) was at first an absurd proposition. So try fitting this into your mental socket: someday soon we might not even use the light fixtures we know and love.

Phone concepts to mark a different future

Change is the law of nature. This aptly applies to almost every field of work or innovation coming to existence. Sometime in the past, portable gadgets were objects that inspired wonder. Communication is one of the most affected field, which started gaining pace with the advent of cellphones. Today mobile phones, both high-end and cheap, are available for every sect of society. Still, technology is not letting innovators satisfy themselves with what they have. High-end technology and unusual designs are flooding the market. Now, we have cellphones that can be wrapped around the wrist, can be folded and much more. Innovators are striving to get more out of every new advancement in technology. Here is a collection of some of the best concept phones, which are the future of portable communication devices.


This is a good book to learn micro controller on basic level. C language is basic language and good way to understand programming. Hope it will make your interest in micro controller.  
Download Link

1.5 W LED Headlight, running off Li-Ion Battery

Slightly modified application circuit of the Philips TEA1208 chopper regulator powers one Luxeon LED


  • 3 Li-Ion replacement batteries for Nokia 3310. Capacity 1500mAh each, integrated protection electronics, made in China
  • Power conversion by Philips TEA1208 step-up converter
  • Light source 1W Luxeon LED


    The 270R resistor limits the current through the (internal) switch (and the inductor, too).
  • Luxeon LED Bicycle Headlight from Standard Parts


    LED headlights offer a much whiter light color than traditional headlights. They are robust and long-lasting. They are more efficient than traditional bulbs, particularly at low power.
    LED headlights differ from regular headlights in the way that the light source (the LED) needs cooling and that the optics are different. Conversion of a regular headlight to an LED headlight just by replacing the bulb with an LED yields a poor beam while the LED soon dies from overheat.
    This project is about building a dedicated LED headlight from commonly available parts.
    This is a single-LED headlight.
    Front View Top View Rear View


  • E27 Edison screw bulb socket with mounting bracket
  • M10 bolt of 25mm length, 1.0 thread (!)
  • M10 nut to match above
  • Collimator with holder (I use Fraen's elliptical type)
  • Luxeon Star LED
  • Heat-conductive glue (I use an Arctic Silver product)
  • Speaker cable
  • Rubber sleeve to fit cable
  • 1.0 mm acrylic glass (cut from cheap safety goggles) 

    How To

    1. Discard contact block of bulb socket
    2. In rear part of bulb socket, drill hole for cable and rubber sleeve.
    3. Polish the head of the M10 bolt and drive it thru the rear part of the bulb holder
    4. Secure mounting bracket with M10 nut. You could use an alternative bracket to fit your bike.
    5. Mount cable and cable sleeve
    6. Solder LED to cable
    7. Cut away ribs from inside front part of bulb holder (photo below)
    8. Cut away front part of bulb holder, so that a flat face remains. (I start with a jigsaw, then remove the last few mm with sand paper)
    9. Cut acrylic glass to size and fit it into the front part of the holder from inside
    10. Apply heat-conductive glue on head of bolt and place LED onto it
    11. Center LED with collimator
    12. Apply pressure on the collimator by screwing-on the head of the bulb holder
    13. Run abt 100mA of current thru the lamp to make the glue cure faster
    14. If improved heat dissipation is needed, add a large washer on the back of the lamp or shape the mounting bracket accordingly
    Cut ribs from inside lamp head Rear part from inside
    Rear part

  • Bicycle Regulator

    This is a regulator for a 6V/3W bicycle generator system. The purpose is to switch to rechargeable batteries when the generator is idle. In addition, the device limits the voltage across the bulbs when the generator operates at a high speed.
    As you can see, the circuit is purely electrical. In the presented design, the switch has been moved, compared to the original to a location where the switch better functions under different circumstances

    5 MHz Bandwidth Single Transistor Modulator LED Based

    The first circuit is useful for modulation up to about 5 MHz and uses a single transistor circuit biased as a firm current source with the LED in the collector circuit. With the circuit components shown, the high frequency cutoff is about 4 - 5 MHz, limited by the base-emitter forward biased capacitance. The quiescent DC current through the LED as determined approximately by (Vcc/2 - 0.7)/R5 or about 24

    KMS Activation For Windows Vista/ 7/ 8 and Office

    Free Download KMS Activation (For Windows Vista/ 7/ 8 And Office 10/13)  


    KMSpico is Activator does not require user intervention, the activation process is performed in the background, simply run the activator and a couple of minutes to activationyour Microsoft  Office, and Windows.

    Features KMS Activator :

    • Universal (Activates Windows Vista/7/8 Pro/Enterprise/N/VL and Office 2010/2013 Retail/VL.)
    • Does not require user intervention (enough to run the activator).

    • Simultaneous activation immediately and Windows, and Office.

    KMSpico  Support :

    • • Activate Windows 8 Enterprise
    • • Activate Windows 8 Professional
    • • Activate Microsoft Office 2013
    • • Activate Microsoft Office Visio 2013
    • • Activate Microsoft Office Project 2013
    • • Activate Microsoft Office 2010
    • • Activate Microsoft Office Visio 2010
    • • Activate Microsoft Office Project 2010
    • • Activate Windows 7 Enterprise
    • • Activate Windows 7 Professional
    • • Activate Windows Vista Enterprise
    • • Activate Windows Vista Professional
    • • Microsoft Windows Server 2012

    • Download link

    What is PWM? Pulse Width Modulation Tutorial in HD

    PWM circuits are fun. You can use them to dim LEDs, control the speed of fans and motors, control the power going to a thermoelectric cooler, or control the power going to pretty much anything you want. Just make sure that you don’t exceed the maximum voltage rating of your device. The video explains it all.

    Capacitor replacement tutorial

    You may have heard about infamous capacitor plague problem, where crappily manufactured capacitors died prematurely on people’s motherboards. Even if the capacitor was properly made, they still only have a finite lifespan, typically 10,000-100,000 hours. After this, you need to replace the caps or replace the whole board. This video shows you what to do! Some people also like to buy old audio amplifiers and are able to repair them simply by replacing the old, leaky capacitors with new ones. The same principles apply.

    Obstacle detector wrist watch for blind

    This is a circuit that helps the blind people to detect the obstacles around them. Here an IR sensor module is used to sense the obstacle in a range of 15-150cm. When an obstacle comes in front of the IR sensor then it detects it by the reflected waves and thereby produces an out put voltage. This output voltage is given to a vibrating motor through an H-bridge IC. That is The vibrating motor starts vibrating when obstacle come front of the watch.


    This amplifier circuit is used in all home telephones to amplify the signal from the line to the earpiece.   The voltage is taken from the line via a bridge that delivers a positive rail, no matter how the phone wires are connected.
    A transformer is used to pick off a signal from the phone line and this is passed through a 22n to the input of the amplifier. Negative feedback is provided by a 15k and 1n2 capacitor. The operating point for the amplifier is set by the 100k pot and this serves to provide an effect on the gain of the amplifier and thus the volume. 


    The LEDs in is circuit fade on when the power is applied and fade-off when switched off:


    If you just want fade-ON and fade-OFF, this circuit is all you need:


    If you want a  simpler circuit using transistors, the following design will produce a constant beep when the battery voltage falls below 10v. 
    The actual voltage can be adjusted by using LEDs and diodes in place of the zener. 

    The mini piezo buzzer contains a transistor and inductor to produce a high amplitude oscillator to drive the diaphragm and produce a loud squeal from a supply of 5v to about 10v. It will not "turn on" from a slowly rising voltage so the circuit must be designed to rise rapidly when the voltage drop down to the "detection-point."
    That's the purpose of the 3rd and 4th transistors. They form a high-gain amplifier where the output rises quickly due to the positive feedback provided by the 100n.

    Vibrating VU Indicator

    This circuit can be used to monitor the output of a stereo to warn when the level is too high. The output is a pager motor and will vibrate so you don't have to keep watching VU levels. The first two transistors are connected so an overload in either channel will trigger the pager motor. No power switch is needed as all transistors are turned OFF when no audio is being detected.

    A 250-amp Speed Controller for RC cars


    Radio Controlled cars have increased in popularity from the time when they were first introduced. Initially, they were little more than toys. Now they have matured to an international sport. Probably the most significant change to the hobby was the introduction of the off-roader or buggy (as they are better known). Not being limited to specially prepared tracks, they have become quite popular.
    These vehicles are equally at home on the race track or in the back yard. There are, however, differences between the serious racing buggy and the backyarder. Apart form the use of ball races and more powerful motors, there are numerous modifications made to a racing buggy. One of the easier and most

    Maxim Real-Time Clock (RTC) ICs

    This is a collection of Maxim’s newest real-time clock ICs.
    39aac6d2082b4fff1c5e1db589abb5deA real-time clock with lots of features including a version with an integrated crystal.


    Here we are going to build a simple ECG (electrocardiograph) amplifier circuit.

    The heart in man and animals produces a small electrical signal that can be recorded through skin surface electrodes and displayed on an oscilloscope or paper strip-chart recorder. This signal is called the electrocardiograph or ECG signal. The peak values of the ECG signal are on the order of one millivolt (1mV). In order to produce a 1 Volt signal to apply to a recorder or oscilloscope, then we need a gain of 1000 mV/1 mV, or 1000. Our ECG amplifier circuit, therefore, must provide a gain of 1000 or more. Further more, because skin has a relatively high electrical resistance (1 to 20 Kohms), the ECG amplifier must have a very high input Impedence.

    Basic electric guitar circuits


    Basic electric guitar circuits

    (Pickups) by Kurt Prange
    Passive (i.e. battery-free) electric guitar circuits are relatively simple and the possibilities for customization are endless. A basic understanding of pickups, potentiometers, capacitors and switches is all you need to get creative and take more control of your instrument’s voice on an electronic level.
    Where does the electric guitar signal come from?

    Guitar Rewiring

    Volume and Tone Controls
    Although we will be primarily discussing switching, let us first show 2 wiring diagrams of a guitar's volume and tone controls.
    NOTE: In these diagrams, the volume and tone controls are viewed from the rear. The volume and tone controls are variable resistors, also known as potentiometers (or "pots" for short). In electric guitars, the values for either of these usually is about 250K to 1 megohm. The capacitor in the circuit is for the tone control and these values usually are from .02 to .047 mfd (short for microfarad).

    The top diagram shows the way in which Fender wires its volume control. (This is the best way to wire a master volume control). Fender generally uses 250K "pots" and .02 mfd capacitors.

    PIC16F877A-Based Temperature Monitoring System

    Temperature monitoring and  control is important in industry environments. Sensors are widely used for measurement of temperature. Usually, a temperature sensor converts the temperature into an equivalent voltage output. IC LM35 is such a sensor. Here we describe a simple temperature measurement and display system based on LM35 sensor and PIC16F877A microcontroller. The temperature in degrees Celsius is displayed on a 16×2 LCD.

    Fig.1 shows the functional block diagram of the PIC16F877A-based temperature monitoring system. The key features of this system are:

    Cellphone-Based Device Control With Voice Acknowledgement

    COURTESY : electronicsforu 
    Here is a circuit that lets you operate your home appliances like lights and water pump from your office or any other remote place. So if you forgot to switch off the lights or other appliances while going out, it helps you to turn off the appliance with your cellphone. Your cellphone works as the remote control for your home appliances. You can control the desired appliance by pressing the corresponding key. The system also gives you voice acknowledgement of the appliance status.
    Circuit description
    Fig.1 shows the circuit for cellphone based device control with voice acknowledgement. It comprises microcontroller AT89C51, DTMF decoder MT8870, voice recording/playback device APR9600 and a few discrete components.

    Huawei Ascend P6, 4.7-inch super-slim quad-core phone

    Huawei Philippines just launched the world’s slimmest smartphone, the Ascend P6 which measures just 6.18mm thin and it’s really beautiful.
    The Huawei Ascend P6 somehow looks like a big iPhone 5 (especially the white one) with its slim body and aluminum band around the side and the subtle round corners. Okay not really the iPhone once you reach its curved base. Hehehe. Still, it feels nice to hold if you’re a fan of slim and elegant phones. This device weighs just about 120g.
    It has a 4.7-inch HD in-cell LCD screen technology with Magic Touch so the screen is still responsive even with gloved fingers.  It’s also protected by Gorilla Glass.


    Five brilliant electronics project kits for the summer holiday
    OK, so it's not an electronics kit as such, but how cool is this? The Holy Grail of summer projects combines the simplicity of Minecraft with the tech joy of 3D printing for the ultimate in geek creativity. Built a grandiose castle? How about a 1:1 scale replica of a Halo Pelican dropship? Printcraft will let you turn your Minecraft models into the real deal so you can display them for the whole (real) world to see.

    Apple iPhone 5s could include improved FaceTime features

    The rumors about the Apple iPhone’s next iteration have gained momentum these days. It is now said that Apple has filed a new patent that suggests that its next iPhone whether it is iPhone 5s or iPhone 6 could include high quality video calls via FaceTime.
    Apple’s new patent is all about a technology that is specifically aimed to improve the FaceTime cameras AE (Auto Exposure) in different lightening conditions. Video calling in current smartphones is generally poor because the lightening conditions changes rapidly and are variable. This is something that the current AE technology is trying to get rid of, especially when altering the visibility tiers very quickly or very slow.

    Power from Two Energy Sources?

    Alternative sources of energy are clean and green but the catch is they generate less energy compared to fossil fuels. So now the scientists are trying to use different sources of alternative energy at the same place and same time to generate power. Attempts are being made to combine two forms of external energy sources such as light and heat or light and vibration to generate external energy so that enough energy
    Two Energy Sources

    A Grid Tie Invertor

    A grid tie invertor works quite like a conventional invertor, however the power output from such invertor is fed and tied with the AC mains from the utility grid supply. As long as the mains AC supply is present, the invertor contributes its power to the existing grid mains supply, and stops the process when the grid supply fails.

    The concept is indeed very intriguing as it allows each of us to become an utility power contributor. Imagine each house getting involved in this project to generate overwhelming amounts of power to the grid, which in turn provides apassive income source to the involved residences. Since the input is derived from the renwoble source, the income becomes absolutely free of cost.

    Very Accurate LC Meter based on PIC16F628A

    About Accurate LC Meter
     LC Meter Kit with Inductors
    This is one of the most accurate and simplest LC inductance / capacitance Meters that one can find, yet one that you can easily build yourself. This LC Meter allows to measure incredibly small inductances starting from 10nH to 1000nH, 1uH to 1000uH, 1mH to 100mH and capacitance from 0.1pF up to 900nF. LC Meter's circuit uses an auto ranging system so that way you do not need to spend time selecting ranges manually.

    Sanwa View-master for 3D videos

    Watching 3D videos through Sanwa View-master is so much fun and simple. Simply insert your iPhone, make sure it locks in place and play. The device won’t transform

    Amazing retractable printer

    Now start to imagine a printer that can extend/retract to fit the sizes of paper you’re printing. Imagine that it is in the shape of a tube and takes up only a small space on your office

    List of Latest Electronics Projects Ideas:


    1. RFID Based Door Access Control

    The conception of entrance control is brought about by mean of a card, a parallel card reader and a control board is amalgamated with the server. This is a proximity card with a unique ID number incorporated in it. The card reader interprets the data and sends it to the control board, which is a microcontroller. This microcontroller tests the legality of the data with the incorporated server, which abides the database. The attached server is uploaded with the details of the worker for that unique ID number.

    Guide for the visually impaired…

    As engineers, it is our job to fix something that is broken, or replace it with something better. Usually, these issues arise in man-made creations. A constant process of repair, refurbish, replace, redesign is what has brought mankind to it’s current state; those are all reworks of problems created by man as a side-effect of creating his comforts. But what about problems that have nothing to do with man’s progress? What about issues that would persist regardless of man’s endeavours?

    Transformer Testing and Fault Finding

    Power transformer failure results in production loss, unavailability of critical services, and loss of revenue. Routine testing and performing diagnostics can minimize loss and down time.
    • Reliable and continual performance of power transformers is the key to beneficial generation and transmission of electric power.

    Generating Electricity from Heat Using Tunnel Diodes

    Scientists have always struggled finding a SOLID-STATE method of generating electricity from heat, and so far have not quite succeeded. Although a complex procedure, here we discuss comprehensively how we can convert waste heat into electricity using tunnel diodes.

    Biostamp temporary tattoo electronic circuits by MC10

    " Materials scientist John Rogers and his firm MC10 have developed flexible electronic circuits that stick directly to the skin like temporary tattoos and monitor the wearer’s health.
    The Biostamp is a thin electronic mesh that stretches with the skin and monitors temperature, hydration and strain."
    Via Dezeen.

    Fan Speed Control Circuit with IC CD4017B

    Electronic project today is show how to build “Fan speed control circuit” which can control speed motor for fan or other equipment's. The simple concept project is use IC CD4017 to control 4 relays which connect each pole. IC CD4017B which is counter-cum-1kHz decoder and the signal is divided into ten equal intervals, 

    Breath Monitor

    The mercury in rubber strain gauge is the detector of breathing. In the model device , strain gauge produced by medimatic . Dem ark was used. The change in length of strain gauge wrapped around the chest during


    The slow-down circuit consists of the top three gates, R3, D1, C2, R4 and C3.
    Sw1 is pressed for a brief period.
    This charges the 47u and the 1u is charged via the 100k.
    The voltage on the 1u rises until it puts a HIGH on input pin 11.

    Overload indicator.

    Two op amp are used as comparators to indicate excessive magnitude of an AF signal , either positive or negative ,even if the signal is asymmetrical. P1 sets the reference voltage for both op amps.This circuit is useful for audio amplifier and op amp circuits using split power supplies.

    Auto,Boat OR barricade Flasher

    Because of its ability to withstand the inrush current, this incandescent lamp flasher uses the C106 SCR. With the component shown th flash rate is adjustable by R3 (250k ohm) within the range of 36 flashes per minute ro16/ min.

    Simple bike horn

    The horn circuit uses only one gate of 4093 quad 2-input Nand schematic trigger. U1, connected in simple, low frequency , square wave oscillator circuit. The oscillator output at pin 3, drive the gate of Q1 . The drain of that FET drive a small horn speaker.

    Engineering Electromagnetics(Book)

    First published just over 50 years ago and now in its Eighth Edition, Bill Hayt and John Buck’s Engineering Electromagnetics is a classic text that has been updated for electromagnetics education today. This widely-respected book stresses fundamental concepts and problem solving, and discusses the material in an understandable and readable way. Numerous illustrations and analogies are provided to aid the reader in grasping the difficult concepts. In addition, independent learning is facilitated by the presence of many examples and problems. Important updates and revisions have been included in this edition. One of the most significant is a new chapter on electromagnetic radiation and antennas. This chapter covers the basic principles of radiation, wire antennas, simple arrays, and transmit-receive systems
    Link 1------------------>DOWNLOAD<

    Backup battery Charger/monitor/alarm

    Charging voltage is constant at the normal full-charge level, so the charging current drops as full charge is approached abd full charge  is maintained with a trickle current. the charging voltage can be adjusted between approximately 10 and 15 Vdc to accommodate lead acid (13.8V)  or lead calcium (13.2V ,13.5V maximum)deep cycle storage batteries.A separate connection is provided so that an external charger can be


    Locator uses a transistor radio as detector. With the radio tuned to a weak station , adjust c1 so the locator oscillator beats against the received Ignore warning signal. when the search head passes over metal the inductance L1 changes thereby changing the locator oscillators frequency and changing the beat tone in radio.

    250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

    -The schematic circuit design is for a 250 watt output, while the pics are of my 1500 watts inverter that i built, to increase the power of the circuit you have to add more of the Q7 and Q8 transistors in parallel, each pair you add will increase your power by 250 watts, ex: to get 750 watts of power from the inverter you need to add 2 of Q7 and 2 of Q8 to the original design.

    Circuit 1000 Watt Power Amplifier Blazer Schematics

    This is an audio amplifier circuit provides power to 1000 watts Blazer. This interesting routes under a lot of good and lively treble.
    Importantly, you should choose the power source, which has been quite high voltage class GND-70V 70Vdc 10A is the current low level

    Make This 1KVA (1000 watts) Pure Sine Wave Inverter Circuit


    A relatively simple 1000 watt pure sine wave inverter circuit is explained here.

    As can be seen in the first diagram below, the configuration is a simple mosfet based designed for amplifying current at +/-60 volts such that the connected transformer corresponds to generate the required 1kva output.

    Q1, Q2 forms the initial differential amplifier stage which appropriately raises the 1vpp sine signal at its input to a level which becomes suitable for initiating the driver stage made up of Q3, Q4, Q5.

    Light dependent sensor for multiple inputs

    This light-dependent sensor uses LDRs to detect the presence or absence of light. as long as light soucrce striking the LDRs remain constant , the alarm does not sound but when the light is interrupted ,the alarm is can use this circuit in other circuit or independly.

    Electronic Canary

    This circuit is a modified hartley oscillator with a couple of extra components included. The transformer is a small audio transformer, type LT700. The primary is center tapped with an impedance of 1Kohms at 1KHz . The secondary has an impedance of 8 ohms. The inclusion of R1 and C1 give this oscillator its characteristic "chirp". As the 100u capacitor charges via the 4.7K resistor, R1 the bias for the transistor is cut off.


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